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Many small business owners opt to run their businesses as an S corporation (s corp) because of the tax planning advantages that this type of structure provided. Unlike a regular corporation, an S corporation is not a separate entity for federal (and most states) taxes. Its income, losses and tax deductions are “passed through” to the shareholders. Also, operating as an S corporation provides an owners with an opportunity to receive income from the business as both dividends and compensation, which provides the ability to reduce the owner’s overall tax liability.
An S corporation begins its existence as a regular corporation. This means the first step is choosing a state for incorporation, filing articles of incorporation, and appointing a registered agent in that state.
CT Tip: It is also possible to operate an LLC as an S corporation by first electing to be taxed as a corporation and then making the S corporation. If you operate as an LLC, you may wish to discuss the pros and cons of this strategy with your accountant.
Although an S corporation is created by filing articles of incorporation, it is essential that you do not make choices when incorporating that will prevent you from electing S corporation status. The critical decisions that could preclude as election are creating more than one class of stocks and issuing shares to prohibited shareholders.
When filing your articles of incorporation, it is essential that you only provide for one class of stock—although shares can differ with respect to voting rights. Other than that, each the rights attached to each share, such as distribution and liquidation, must be identical. Thus, if you want to make an S corporation election down the road, you cannot authorize common and preferred shares.
There are also limitations on the shareholders themselves. Stock can only be issued to individuals who are US citizens or resident aliens; certain types of trusts and estates. Stock cannot be issued to non-resident aliens, trusts (other than those specifically allowed by the Internal Revenue Code), partnerships and corporations. Finally, there cannot be more than 100 shareholders, although certain shareholders (such as spouses) can count as one person for the 100 shareholder limitation.
Once your corporation is official on record with your incorporation state, the next step is to make an election to be an S corporation by filing the appropriate paperwork with the IRS.
When you first form your business you have a short window of opportunity to make an S corporation election that is effective for the first year of operation. The election must be filed with the IRS no more than two months and 15 days after the beginning of your business’s tax year. If you miss filing during this period, then you have two choices: petition the IRS for a waiver of the rule or have the election take effect starting in the next tax year.
The rules calculating the filing period are a bit tricky. The 2-month period begins on the day of the month your tax year begins and ends with the close of the day before the numerically corresponding day of the second calendar month following that month.
An S corporation will usually have the calendar year as its tax year. But the first tax year will nearly always be a short tax year that begins on a date other than January 1 and ends on December 31. This first tax year starts on the earliest of the following dates: the date the corporation first had shareholders; the date it first had assets, or the date it began doing business.
Example: A corporation begins its first tax year on January 7. The first two months of the corporation’s tax year end on March 6. The 15th day of the third month in the corporation’s tax year is March 21. The narrow time window to elect S corporation status for the first year begins on January 7 and ends on March 21, 2014 (the 15th day of the third month of the corporation’s tax year). Because the corporation had no prior tax year, an election made before January 7 will not be valid.
In order to become an S corporation, the corporation must submit a completed Form 2553 (Election by a Small Business Corporation) that has been signed by all the shareholders. The following information must be provided:
The form also provides a way to select a tax year and to certify certain trusts qualify as shareholders.
Once the information is complete, the form is mailed (or faxed) to the IRS. (The address varies depending upon where the principal office of your business is located.) Then the waiting begins. You generally will know the response within 60 days from the time the IRS receives the application.
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